What microglia means?

Microglia are cells of mesodermal/mesenchymal origin that migrate into the CNS to become resident macrophages within the unique brain microenvironment. Microglia are highly dynamic cells that interact with neurons and nonneuronal cells.

What is microglia activation?

Microglia become activated following exposure to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and/or endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and removal of the immune-suppressive signals. Activated microglia can acquire different phenotypes depending on cues in its surrounding environment.

What is the difference between M1 and M2 microglia?

Microglial polarization Microglia generally polarize in two directions from a resting state. The classical activation is known as M1, which is the mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. The alternative activation, known as M2, is responsible for resolution and repair.

What is microglia responsible for?

Microglia are resident cells of the brain that regulate brain development, maintenance of neuronal networks, and injury repair.

What happens if microglia are damaged?

While moving through its set region, if the microglial cell finds any foreign material, damaged cells, apoptotic cells, neurofibrillary tangles, DNA fragments, or plaques it will activate and phagocytose the material or cell.

How do you stop microglia activation?

Thirdly, some compounds targeting NADPH oxidase, such as apocynin, resveratrol and diphenyleneiodonium, could inhibit microglial activation, suppress the generation of various toxic factors (e.g., ROS, RNS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines), and promote microglial phenotype toward anti-inflammatory state, thereby …

Where are microglia found?

central nervous system
Microglial cells are a specialised population of macrophages that are found in the central nervous system (CNS). They remove damaged neurons and infections and are important for maintaining the health of the CNS.

What percent of the brain is microglia?

Introduction. Depending on the anatomical region, microglia account for 0.5–16.6% of the total cell population in the human brain (Lawson et al., 1992) and 5–12% in the mouse brain (Mittelbronn et al., 2001).