What is the difference between podocytes and mesangial cells?

The mature glomerulus contains four cell types: Parietal epithelial cells that form Bowman’s capsule, podocytes that cover the outermost layer of the glomerular filtration barrier, glycocalyx-coated fenestrated endothelial cells that are in direct contact with blood, and mesangial cells that sit between the capillary …

Are mesangial cells macrophages?

Mesangial cells are macrophages and resemble pericytes. They typically cover 30% of glomerular capillaries. They are both vimentin and desmin positive.

How do mesangial cells regulate GFR?

Integral components of the renal glomerulus are the mesangial cells (MCs), excitable renal pericytes that regulate the glomerular filtration rate by modulating the surface area of the capillaries.

Where are mesangial cells found?

Mesangial cells are contractile cells that constitute the central stalk of the glomerulus. On the capillary lumen side, mesangial cells are in direct contact with the glomerular endothelium without an intervening basement membrane, as one typically can observe with pericytes.

Where are Intraglomerular mesangial cells located?

Intraglomerular mesangial cells are located between capillaries within the glomerulus, while extraglomerular mesangial cells are located between the macula densa and the afferent arteriole. They are electrically and chemically coupled via gap junctions.

Where are mesangial cells located?

Extraglomerular mesangial cells, also known as lacis cells or Goormaghtigh cells, are located in the space between the afferent and efferent arterioles, and the glomerular capillaries. These pale staining, renin containing cells are located just outside the glomerulus, near the vascular pole.

What do mesangial cells look like?

Structure. Mesangial cells have irregular shapes with flattened-cylinder-like cell bodies and processes at both ends containing actin, myosin and actinin, giving mesangial cells contractile properties.

Where are the mesangial cells found?

Which of the following relaxes mesangial cells?

Mesangial cell relaxation can be mediated by enhanced cAMP or cGMP generation. Dopamine is a catecholamine known to increase c-AMP levels in mesangial cells.

Where do mesangial cells originate from in the body?

Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo h … Mesangial cell biology Exp Cell Res.

How are mesangial cells related to sclerosis?

In both of these experimental models it has been speculated that the intraglomerular hypertension is directly related to the mesangial cell dysfunction which leads to sclerosis. Mesangial cells are quite irregular in shape with many processes extending from the cell body toward the GBM (see Figs. 1.7 and 1.8 ).

How does the mesangial cell respond to injury?

Mesangial cells are the glomerular capillary equivalent to the smooth muscle cell and in that capacity respond to injury in a similar fashion: death, transformation, proliferation, and migration as well as synthesis and deposition of ECM. Mesangial death through necrosis, lysis, and apoptosis has been well documented in response to injury.

How are mesangial cells similar to macrophages and monocytes?

The mesangial cells are a “stalk-like” support network that holds the coils and loops of capillaries in place, but they also play other roles. There are several types of mesangial cells. For example, the mesangium contains immune cells that are similar to monocytes/macrophages and make up 5% to 15% of the mesangium.