What is retinal tortuosity?

Retinal vascular tortuosity was defined as the integral of the curvature square along the path of the vessel, normalized by the total path length. Data on blood pressure and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were collected from all participants.

What causes squiggly blood vessels in the eye?

The blood vessels that nourish the eye are delicate and thin. Changes where they become more ‘wiggly’ or tortuous can be a sign of raised blood pressure.”

What are the abnormal finding in the retinal vessels?

Observable changes in retinal vascular architecture, such as increased retinal vein caliber (decreased artery-to-vein ratio), retinal vascular tortuosity, increased prominence of the retinal arterial reflex, venous nicking, “copper” or “silver wire” appearance as well as the discovery of cholesterol, calcium or …

What is venous tortuosity?

1. Congenital venous tortuosity is an aberrant retinal vessel that is usually located at the posterior pole region. Most of these cases are unilateral and stable with excellent visual prognosis and are detected on routine examination.

What causes retinal vein tortuosity?

Retinal Artery and Vein Tortuosity Tortuous retinal arteries and veins are associated with hypertension, diabetes and genetic disorders [8, 20, 22, 78, 79, 80, 81]. Tortuous conjunctival arteries and veins are also reported in patients with diabetic retinopathy [8, 82, 83, 84] and hypertension [84, 85].

What does a retinal eye scan show?

Retinal imaging can be used to see: The optic nerve head where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave the eye. The different cellular layers which contain nerves and axons. The macular, which is the part of our eye responsible for central vision.

What are ghost vessels in the eye?

The new blood vessels will never go away again; they will empty and no longer carry blood into the cornea, but they are still there. (These are called “ghost vessels,” because without blood in them, they look a little ghostly, being clear and hard to see.)

What do cotton wool spots indicate?

Cotton-wool spots (CWSs) are common retinal manifestations of many diseases including diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinically they appear as whitish, fluffy patches on the retina and eventually fade with time.

How is the tortuosity of the retina measured?

Methods: Retinal arteriolar and venular (vascular) tortuosity were quantitatively measured from fundus images using a computer-assisted program. Retinal vascular tortuosity was defined as the integral of the curvature square along the path of the vessel, normalized by the total path length.

Can a tortuous retina be a sign of endocrinopathies?

It has been reported that retinal vein tortuosity is predictive of patients with endocrinopathies.   Retinal arteries often appear straight and narrow but this may not be seen in all cases.   Visual acuity ranges from 20/50 to NLP but usually 20/200 or better.   Many patients have nystagmus and strabismus.

What is the relationship between blood pressure and retinal tortuosity?

Conclusions: Retinal arteriolar tortuosity was associated with older age and higher levels of blood pressure and BMI, whereas venular tortuosity was also associated with lower HDL level.