## What is meant by control volume?

In continuum mechanics and thermodynamics, a control volume is a mathematical abstraction employed in the process of creating mathematical models of physical processes. At steady state, a control volume can be thought of as an arbitrary volume in which the mass of the continuum remains constant.

### What is the difference between a control mass and a control volume?

CONTROL VOLUME is an arbitrarily chosen volume that it contains the matter or space being studied inside an imaginary surface called CONTROL SURFACE and everything external to it is the surrounding. CONTROL MASS is essentially a control volume which is closed to mass flow, only energy exchange can take place.

#### What is a control mass system?

Control Mass System (Closed System) Its a system of fixed mass with fixed identity. This type of system is usually referred to as “closed system”. There is no mass transfer across the system boundary. Energy transfer may take place into or out of the system.

Is a piston cylinder a closed system?

The piston-cylinder arrangement in an internal combustion engine is only a closed system during the compression stroke and during the power stroke. During the other strokes one of the valves is open to either allow the air/fuel mixture to flow into the cylinder or the combustion products to flow out of the cylinder.

Is Earth a closed system?

The earth system as a whole is a closed system. The boundary of the earth system is the outer edge of the atmosphere. Virtually no mass is exchanged between the Earth system and the rest of the universe (except for an occasional meteorite).

## Is compressor a closed system?

But to study comoressors, pumps and turbines defining a system as open helps a lot. Any compressor has an inlet and outlet via which fluid enters and leaves. In a case if we are selecting a control mass (system as some specific amount of fluid) entering and leaving the compressor) it becomes a closed system.

### What are examples of open and closed systems?

An open system can exchange both energy and matter with its surroundings. The stovetop example would be an open system, because heat and water vapor can be lost to the air. A closed system, on the other hand, can exchange only energy with its surroundings, not matter.

#### What is a good example of a closed system?

Closed Systems A closed system, on the other hand, does not allow the exchange of matter but allows energy to be transferred. Example of a closed system – a pressure cooker.

What is an example of a open system?

Examples of an Open System A perfect example of an open system is a living organism such as a human being. We actively interact with our environment, which results in changes to both the environment and us. For example, we eat to acquire energy. We are subject to the sun’s radiation and the climate of our planet.

Is a refrigerator an open or closed system?

A refrigerator is an open system that dispels heat from a closed space to a warmer area, usually a kitchen or another room. By dispelling the heat from this area, it decreases in temperature, allowing food and other items to remain at a cool temperature.

## Is pressure cooker a closed system?

A closed system always contains the same matter. For example, the contents of a pressure cooker on a stove with its lid tightly closed and the whistle in position, is a closed system as no mass can enter or leave the pressure cooker, but heat can be transferred to it.

### How does energy flow when a refrigerator door is accidentally left open?

If you leave the door open, heat is merely recycled from the room into the refrigerator, then back into the room. A net room temperature increase would result from the heat of the motor that would be constantly running to move energy around in a circle.

#### Is a lake a closed or open system?

All lakes are either open or closed. If water leaves a lake by a river or other outlet, it is said to be open. All freshwater lakes are open. If water only leaves a lake by evaporation, the lake is closed.

Is an egg a closed system?

An example of an open system is a fertilized hen’s egg. The system is the chick embryo and shell, the surroundings are the nest and the hen. This is a closed system. There is only one example of an isolated system, one in which there is no exchange of either energy or mass, and that is our Universe.

Why do lakes not dry up?

So why don’t lakes just dry up? Some do. For a lake to keep its water over time, it has to be replenished. So these sorts of lakes may also get underground water that flows in from underneath the lake – the lake floor may be an area of water input, rather than a drain for the lake.

## Why do lakes not evaporate?

If a lake is too deep, then it usually has naturally impenetrable clay or rocks at the bottom, which means that water cannot seep through. Since there’s a constant supply of water from above, the ground beneath lakes becomes saturated with water to the point where it can’t absorb water anymore.

### What happens during condensation?

Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water. As condensation occurs and liquid water forms from the vapor, the water molecules become more organized and heat is released into the atmosphere as a result.

#### How long does it take for a lake to dry up?

After being completely filled (as in 1950, 1974, and 1984), the lake takes about two years to dry up again.