What causes Leukoencephalitis?

What Causes Encephalitis? Viral encephalitis may develop during or after infection with any of several viral illnesses including influenza, herpes simplex, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, chickenpox, and arbovirus infection including West Nile virus.

Which of the following viruses causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy PML a disease causing demyelination in the central nervous system?

Epidemiology. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a progressive, demyelinating disease caused by a human polyoma virus called John Cunningham virus (JCV).

What are the symptoms of leukoencephalopathy?

Symptoms

  • Clumsiness or loss of coordination.
  • Difficulty walking.
  • Facial drooping.
  • Loss of vision.
  • Personality changes.
  • Trouble speaking.
  • Weak muscles.

How is leukoencephalopathy diagnosed?

A diagnosis of PML can be made following brain biopsy or by combining observations of a progressive course of the disease, consistent white matter lesions visible on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and the detection of the JC virus in spinal fluid.

What are the first symptoms of PML?

For most people, PML symptoms start subtly. The symptoms may vary depending on which part of your brain has the infection. Early symptoms may include: Clumsiness or lack of coordination….As the infection progresses, people may experience:

  • Dementia.
  • Speech loss.
  • Vision loss.

What is a leukoencephalopathy disease?

Definition. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the white matter of the brain, caused by a virus infection that targets cells that make myelin–the material that insulates nerve cells (neurons).

Is PML reversible?

It typically occurs in immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients on immunosuppressant medications, patients receiving chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment for PML.

Is leukoencephalopathy common?

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is rare. It affects about 1 in every 200,000 people.

What drugs can cause leukoencephalopathy?

Natalizumab, predniso(lo)ne, (dimethyl) fumarate, fludarabine, rituximab, and brentuximab vedotin were the most common single agents that have been demonstrated to trigger PML (Online Resource 1).

Why do people with leukoencephalopathy have demyelinating diseases?

It can happen that, due to hereditary factors, myelin once developed, begins to degenerate (what is denominated as Leukodystrophies ). Whereas, those conditions in which problems occur in the formation of myelin are called Demyelinating diseases.

How are white matter disorders related to leukoencephalopathy?

Leukoencephalopathies are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by developmental abnormalities or degeneration of white matter. White matter disorders are subdivided into hypomyelinating disorders, dysmyelinating disorders, leukodystrophies, disorders related to myelin splitting, and secondary disorders of white matter.

What kind of brain damage is toxic leukoencephalopathy?

Toxic leukoencephalopathy or toxic spongiform leukoencephalopathy is a rare condition that is characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) to white matter (-leuko-) in the brain (-encephalo-), particularly myelin, due to causes such as exposure to drugs of abuse, environmental toxins, or chemotherapeutic drugs.

What are the different types of demyelinating diseases?

In biopsy specimens, the critical distinction is usually from ischaemic or neoplastic disease, and the types of demyelinating disease most likely to be encountered are multiple sclerosis, acute‚Äźdisseminated encephalomyelitis, progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy and extrapontine myelinolysis.