What are the types of malpresentation?

There are different types of malpresentation:

  • Breech presentation: A breech presentation is when the baby is lying with their bottom or feet down.
  • Transverse lie: A transverse lie is when the baby is lying sideways.
  • Oblique lie: The baby’s head is against the mother’s hip, high above the birth canal.

What is the most common malpresentation?

Breech presentation is the most common malpresentation, with the majority discovered before labour. Breech presentation is much more common in premature labour. Approximately one third are diagnosed during labour when the fetus can be directly palpated through the cervix.

What are the types of malpresentation and malposition?


  • fetal malpresentations types include 1,3,4 breech – most common malpresentation; buttocks or feet of fetus are fetal presenting part.
  • fetal malposition types include 2,3 occiput posterior – fetal occiput is oriented toward the posterior aspect of the maternal pelvis.

What are the common causes of malpresentation?

Summary of Study Session 8 Common causes of malpresentations/malpositions include: excess amniotic fluid, abnormal shape and size of the pelvis; uterine tumour; placenta praevia; slackness of uterine muscles (after many previous pregnancies); or multiple pregnancy.

How is Malpresentation diagnosed?

On abdominal examination, the head is felt in the upper abdomen and the breech in the pelvic brim. Auscultation locates the fetal heart higher than expected with a vertex presentation. On vaginal examination during labour, the buttocks and/or feet are felt; thick, dark meconium is normal.

Can a baby come out arm first?

In the safest presentation (vertex presentation), the baby is born head first, with the rest of the body following. In a compound presentation, however, there are multiple presenting parts. Most commonly, this means that the baby’s head and an arm come out first at the same time.

What is the most common fetal attitude?

The most common relationship between fetus and mother is the longitudinal lie, cephalic presentation. A breech fetus also is a longitudinal lie, with the fetal buttocks as the presenting part. Breech fetuses also are referred to as malpresentations because of the many problems associated with them.

How is malpresentation diagnosed?

How do you manage malpresentation?

Fetal malpresentation is a leading cause of cesarean delivery. Breech presentation and transverse lie at term can be managed with ECV with or without moxibustion and acupuncture.

How do you manage Malpresentation?

What is true CPD?

Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) occurs when a baby’s head or body is too large to fit through the mother’s pelvis. It is believed that true CPD is rare, but many cases of “failure to progress” during labor are given a diagnosis of CPD.

What are the most common diseases of trees?

Common Forest Disease Problems 1 Anthracnose Disease of Dogwood. 2 Anthracnose Disease of Common Landscape Trees. 3 Cedar-Apple Rust. 4 Fusiform Rust in Arkansas. 5 Hypoxylon Canker of Hardwood Shade Trees. 6 (more items)

What is the difference between fetal malpresentation and malposition?

Fetal Malpresentation and Malposition: Diagnosis and Management Fetal malpresentation and fetal malposition are frequently interchanged; however, fetal malpresentation refers to a fetus with a fetal part other than the head engaging the maternal pelvis. Fetal malposition in labor includes occiput posterior and occiput transverse positions.

What are the characteristics of a maple tree?

Maple species native to the United States. Table 3-2 contains a descriptive comparison and Figures 3.2 through 3.5 illustrate characteristic leaves, bark, twigs, and fruits of sugar, black, red and silver maple. These four species share several characteristics in common.

What causes unsightly spots on the leaves of a tree?

Photo by Sherrie Smith, University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture.. Leaf spots on trees are generally not important in the scheme of things but can be unsightly. Several species of fungi may cause leaf spot. The most common are Septoria, Phyllosticta, Mycoshaerella, and Actinopelte.