Is seminoma malignant?

A seminoma is a germ cell tumor of the testicle or, more rarely, the mediastinum or other extra-gonadal locations. It is a malignant neoplasm and is one of the most treatable and curable cancers, with a survival rate above 95% if discovered in early stages.

What is a yolk sac tumor?

Listen to pronunciation. (yok sak TOO-mer) A rare type of cancer that begins in germ cells (cells that form sperm or eggs). Yolk sac tumors occur most often in the ovary or testicle, but they may also occur in other areas of the body, such as the chest, abdomen, or brain.

What is Itgcn?

Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is the precursor lesion for invasive testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) of adolescents and young adults. The rising incidence of these tumors has prompted a rigorous investigation of the etiology, diagnosis and management of ITGCN.

How is Isochromosome formed?

An isochromosome is created when the centromere is divided transversely, or perpendicular to the long axis of the chromosome. The division is usually not occurring in the centromere itself, but in an area surrounding the centromere, also known as a pericentric region.

Is the isochromosome of chromosome 12 a marker for GCTs?

Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses have shown that an isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 12, i (12p), is a specific marker of GCTs. It is detectable in approximately 80% of cases. i (12p)-negative tumors show excess 12p genetic material by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) or other appropriate genetic techniques.

Are there chromosome 12p abnormalities in the ovary?

Chromosome 12p abnormalities are common in dysgerminoma of the ovary. FISH analyses for chromosome 12p abnormalities may be a useful diagnostic adjunct for confirming the diagnosis of dysgerminoma and for distinguishing it from nongerm cell malignancies that enter into the differential diagnosis.

How many copies of an isochromosome are there?

An isochromosome is a mirror-image abnormal chromosome consisting of two copies of either a short arm or a long arm, often observed for X and acrocentric (13, 14, 15, 21, and 22) chromosomes.