What is the vertical scale on a topographic map?
Topographic maps also have a vertical scale to allow the determination of a point in three dimensional space. Contour Lines: Contour lines are used to determine elevations and are lines on a map that are produced from connecting points of equal elevation (elevation refers to height in feet, or meters, above sea level).
How do you find the vertical exaggeration of a topographic profile?
In order to calculate vertical exaggeration, divide the real world units of horizontal scale by the real world units of vertical scale. Make sure same units are used in numerator and denominator of the division. Also always show vertical exaggeration value on your profile graph.
What is vertical exaggeration in a profile?
Vertical exaggeration refers to the common practice in topographic profiles of different horizontal and vertical scales. It is expressed as a number, the ratio of the vertical to horizontal scale, and is almost always greater than 1.
How is vertical exaggeration for a vertical profile calculated?
Vertical exaggeration formula: VE = (real world units of horizontal scale) / (real world units of vertical scale). As an example for a 1:50000 topographic map, we can set the horizontal scale (x axis) of the profile the same as the map.
Why is the vertical scale exaggerated?
Vertical exaggeration (VE) is a scale that is used in raised-relief maps, plans and technical drawings (cross section perspectives), in order to emphasize vertical features, which might be too small to identify relative to the horizontal scale.
Why are profile maps vertically exaggerated?
Vertical exaggeration (VE) However, because of the scale of most maps, the small amount of variation in elevation at map scale will mask most details of topography. For this reason, topographic profiles are usually constructed with some amount of vertical exaggeration (VE) to emphasize the details of topography.
What is vertical scale?
Vertical scale is the ability to move a single instance to a more powerful machine. Vertical scaling is far more limited than horizontal scaling because there is a limit to the size of a single machine.
What is a vertical profile?
A graph showing the variation of a meteorological event with height.
Why are topographic profiles drawn with a different vertical scale than the map scale?
The difference between them is the maximum relief of the profile. Cross sectional paper divided into 0.1 inch or 2 mm squares makes a good base on which to draw a profile. Use a vertical scale as small as possible so as to keep the amount of vertical exaggeration to a minimum.
How do you find vertical relief?
It is easily calculated by subtracting the lowest elevation from the highest elevation in an area. If a mountain, for example, has an elevation of 8,000 feet and an adjacent valley has an elevation of 3,000 feet, we would say the relief between the two is 5,000 feet.
Is horizontal or vertical scaling cheaper?
As you can find here Best Practices For Horizontal Application Scaling, vertical scaling is much more expensive than horizontal scaling: vertical scaling cost increase exponentially whereas with horizontal scalability cost is linear.
Which is the horizontal scale of a topographic profile?
The result is a topographic profile along the line selected for the profile (Fig. 7-7C). Vertical exaggeration (VE) The horizontal scale of a topographic profile is the same as the map from which ft is constructed.
How to calculate vertical exaggeration of a topographic profile?
The vertical exaggeration values for the two profiles are calculated below (by measurments of graphs’ axis using ruler on computer screen). A value of 1x for VE means that there is no vertical exaggeration and the vertical and horizontal scales are equal.
How to create a topographic profile of a place?
To construct a topographic profile, you need to find a line on a map that is interesting. In many cases, this line is given to you (often labeled something like A-A’ or A-B). The line should go through some part of the map that you are interested in, so that you get useful information.
Which is an example of a fractional scale?
Fractional Scale The fractional scale expresses the ratio of the map distance to the ground distance in likeunits of measurements. It is usually written as a fraction or ratio. For example, the map in Figure 2-5 has a map scale of 1:24,000 which means one inch on the map is 24,000 inches on the ground.