What is the function of Birbeck granules?

Birbeck granules appear to represent the receptor-mediated endocytosis of antigens and thus could be related to the antigen-presenting and allostimulatory functions of LCD.

What do Birbeck granules contain?

Birbeck granules are unusual rod-shaped structures specific to epidermal Langerhans cells, whose origin and function remain undetermined. We investigated the intracellular location and fate of Langerin, a protein implicated in Birbeck granule biogenesis, in human epidermal Langerhans cells.

What is LCH disease?

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease that begins in LCH cells. LCH cells are a type of dendritic cell that normally helps the body fight infection. Sometimes mutations (changes) develop in genes that control how dendritic cells function. These include mutations of the BRAF, MAP2K1, RAS, and ARAF genes.

What does LCH look like?

Red, scaly bumps in skin folds are common. Infants with LCH can get red, scaly scalps, which is often mistaken for cradle cap, a common skin condition. Liver. Usually, only severe cases of LCH affect the liver.

What does LCH rash look like?

Patients may have skin involvement with extensive seborrhia-like rashes on the scalp that mimic persistent cradle cap; an erythematous papular rash similar to Candida diaper rash; or deep ulcerative lesions in the groin or arm pits or purplish-brown lesions 3-6mm in diameter which are often mistaken for a viral …

What are the 3 layers of the epidermis?

Layers of Epidermis The layers of the epidermis include the stratum basale (the deepest portion of the epidermis), stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum (the most superficial portion of the epidermis).

Why is the number sign used for Birbeck granule deficiency?

A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that Birbeck granule deficiency is caused by heterozygous mutation in the CD207 gene ( 604862) on chromosome 2p13. One such patient has been reported. Birbeck granules (BGs) are rod-shaped cytoplasmic organelles found only in epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs).

Where are the Birbeck granules found in the body?

The Birbeck granule is a rod-shaped bilaminar disk with an internal zipper-like pattern of striations, often with a bulbous dilatation at one end, like a tennis racquet. The granules are found wherever Langerhans cells are seen in the body but are not unique to Langerhans cells and have been described in other cells ( Fig.

Are there any plants that are iron deficient?

Iron deficiency is especially a problem with petunia, calibrachoa, pansy, verbena and dianthus (Figure 2). These plants become iron-deficient at fairly low pHs, around 6.2. Iron deficiencies generally occur later in the growing period, since media starts at a low pH and tends to drift higher.

How to tell if river birch has iron deficiency?

Late stage iron deficiency in a river birch. The veins are still green, while the surrounding areas have turned a bright yellow. Manganese deficiency and iron deficiency share common symptoms. Newer leaves will have interveinal chlorosis, and in severe cases, will form brown spots.