What is the anatomy of the vestibular system?
Vestibular system, apparatus of the inner ear involved in balance. The vestibular system consists of two structures of the bony labyrinth of the inner ear, the vestibule and the semicircular canals, and the structures of the membranous labyrinth contained within them.
What is kinocilium and stereocilia?
one relatively long hair (kinocilium) and about 50 shorter ones (stereocilia). The kinocilium is inserted eccentrically on top of the sense cell; the stereocilia are arranged in parallel rows. In about half of the hair cells of a neuromast, the kinocilium is found on one (and the same) side…
What is the kinocilium function?
Kinocilia play a crucial role in transmitting movement of the overlying mass, otoconial membrane or cupula to the mechanotransducing portion of the hair cell bundle.
What is the difference between stereocilia and kinocilium?
There is a structural difference between a kinocilium (which is a true cilium, having a 9+2 microtubule arrangement), and stereocilia (which don’t have microtubules, instead they have actin cores).
What is the function of vestibular?
The vestibular system is the sensory apparatus of the inner ear that helps the body maintain its postural equilibrium. The information furnished by the vestibular system is also essential for coordinating the position of the head and the movement of the eyes.
How does the vestibular system work?
The vestibular system (inner ear balance mechanism) works with the visual system (eyes and the muscles and parts of the brain that work together to let us ‘see’) to stop objects blurring when the head moves. It also helps us maintain awareness of positioning when, for example, walking, running or riding in a vehicle.
Where are kinocilium found?
Kinocilia are present in the crista ampullaris of the semicircular ducts and the sensory maculae of the utricle and saccule. One kinocilium is the longest cilium located on the hair cell next to 40-70 stereocilia. During movement of the body, the hair cell is depolarized when the sterocilia move toward the kinocilium.
How do kinocilium and stereocilia work together?
Bending the stereocilia toward the kinocilium depolarizes the cell and results in increased afferent activity. Bending the stereocilia away from the kinocilium hyperpolarizes the cell and results in a decrease in afferent activity. The semicircular ducts work in pairs to detect head movements (angular acceleration).
Where are kinocilia located in the vestibular system?
Vestibular apparatus. Kinocilia are present in the crista ampullaris of the semicircular ducts and the sensory maculae of the utricle and saccule. One kinocilium is the longest cilium located on the hair cell next to 40-70 stereocilia.
Which is the basal body of the kinocilium?
…the basal body of a kinocilium, although no motile ciliary (hairlike) portion is present as is the case on the hair cells of the vestibular system.
Which is the longest cilium in the vestibular apparatus?
Vestibular apparatus. One kinocilium is the longest cilium located on the hair cell next to 40-70 stereocilia. During movement of the body, the hair cell is depolarized when the sterocilia move toward the kinocilium. The depolarization of the hair cell causes neurotransmitter to be released and an increase in firing frequency of cranial nerve VIII.
Is the kinocilium always on one side of the hair cell?
The kinocilium is always present on one side of the hair cell. The stereocilia continuously become shorter in length as one moves to the other side of the hair cell. There are minute filamentous attachments that connect each stereocilium to next longer stereocilium and ultimately to the kinocilium.