## What is Schoenfeld residuals?

Schoenfeld residuals. The Schoenfeld residual is defined as the covariate value for the individual that failed minus its expected value. (Yields residuals for each individual who failed, for each covariate).

**How do you assess proportional hazards assumptions?**

The proportional hazards (PH) assumption can be checked using statistical tests and graphical diagnostics based on the scaled Schoenfeld residuals. In principle, the Schoenfeld residuals are independent of time. A plot that shows a non-random pattern against time is evidence of violation of the PH assumption.

**What do you do when the proportional hazards assumption is violated?**

Sometimes the proportional hazard assumption is violated for some covariate. In such cases, it is possible to stratify taking this variable into account and use the proportional hazards model in each stratum for the other covariates.

### How are martingale residuals calculated?

Martingale residuals rMi can be defined as rMi=δi−rCi where δi is a switch taking the value 0 if observation i is censored and 1 if observation i is uncensored. Martingale residuals take a value between [1,−∞] for uncensored observations and [0,−∞] for censored observations.

**What are the assumptions of survival analysis?**

Kaplan-Meier estimator has a few assumptions: the survival probability is the same for censored and uncensored subjects; the likelihood of the occurrence of the event is the same for the participants enrolled early and late; the probability of censoring is the same for different groups; finally, the event is assumed to …

**What are PH assumptions?**

One of the key assumptions of the Cox model is the proportional hazards function assumption. Specifically, the model assumes that each covariate has a multiplicative effect in the hazards function that is constant over time. The PH assumption is often of substantial importance.

## What is the difference between non-proportional and proportional?

Proportional: Non-Proportional: How to tell the difference: A proportional graph is a straight line that always goes through the origin. A non-proportional graph is a straight line that does not go through the origin.

**What are the Cox regression assumptions?**

**What is a martingale residual?**

Martingale residuals take a value between [1,−∞] for uncensored observations and [0,−∞] for censored observations. Martingale residuals can be used to assess the true functional form of a particular covariate (Thernau et al. (1990)).

### How are the Schoenfeld residuals used in statistic?

Residuals. Under the proportional hazards assumption, the Schoenfeld residuals have the sample path of a random walk; therefore, they are useful in assessing time trend or lack of proportionality. Harrell (1886) proposed a -transform of the Pearson correlation between these residuals and the rank order of the failure time as a test statistic…

**When to use Schoenfeld and martingal residuals?**

If you need a formal test you can perform a simple linear regression where the dependent variable is the Schoenfeld residual and the independent variable is time.

**How is the score residual for a subject obtained?**

The vector is the score residual for the th subject. When the counting process MODEL specification is used, the RESSCO= variables contain the components of instead of the score process at . The score residual for a subject can be obtained by summing up these component residuals within the subject.

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