What is PVL in MRSA?

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a highly pathogenic multiple-drug resistant (MDR) microorganism that has recently become more prevalent in the community. It has been found that MRSA strains can also contain genes that encode the panton valentine leukocidin toxin (PVL).

How does MRSA get the PVL gene?

PVL is mostly associated with community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections and distinguishable from nosocomial MRSA by nonmultidrug resistance and carriage of the type IV staphylococcal chromosome cassette element (SCCmec type IV) (6,7).

What is Panton Valentine leukocidin PVL toxin?

Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a virulence factor produced by some strains that causes leukocyte lysis and tissue necrosis. PVL-associated S. aureus (PVL-SA) predominantly causes skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) but can also cause invasive infections such as necrotizing pneumonia.

What toxins does MRSA produce?

Amongst the more common toxins secreted by S. aureus are hemolysin, leukotoxin, exfoliative toxin, enterotoxin, and toxic-shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1).

Can PVL go away?

In some mild cases, the condition causes no symptoms. There is no treatment to cure PVL. Babies at risk for PVL may need special care after discharge from the hospital. Follow-up may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy.

Is PVL in all MRSA?

PVL is found in the majority of community-acquired methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and (MRSA) isolates responsible for skin and soft tissue disease, necrotizing pneumonia, pneumonia with empyema, necrotizing fasciitis, and severe sepsis syndrome.

How is PVL treated?

How is PVL-SA treated? Boils and abscesses would normally be drained by incision and you may then require treatment with antibiotics. If tests show that you have an infection caused by PVL or you are carrying PVL, you will be offered further treatment consisting of a skin body wash and a nasal cream used over 5 days.

Is PVL carried by all MRSA?

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen associated with nosocomial and community infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is considered one of the important virulence factors of S….

Specimen type Total number of MRSA PVL positive (%)
Body fluids 2 0

What causes Panton-Valentine leukocidin?

The Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming toxin secreted by strains epidemiologically associated with the current outbreak of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and with the often-lethal necrotizing pneumonia.

Does Staphylococcus aureus produce toxin A?

S. aureus produces a variety of cytolytic toxins. Most are infamous for lysing red and/or white blood cells. Those that lyse red blood cells are called hemolysins, while those that target white blood cells are leukotoxins.

What is the incubation period of Staphylococcus aureus?

Outbreak Potential: Staphylococci have moderate outbreak potential if transmitted by food. Incubation period: The incubation period for S. aureus food poisoning is between 2 and 4 hours (range 30 minutes to 8 hours).

What is the role of PVL in MRSA?

PVL is associated with abscess formation and severe necrotizing pneumonia. Most CA-MRSA strains possess PVL genes, though there is controversy on the role PVL plays in disease. Early studies suggested it was a major virulence factor in CA-MRSA though some recent data has suggested this is not the case.

Which is the key virulence factor of MRSA?

Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is one of many toxins associated with S. aureus infection. Because it can be found in virtually all CA-MRSA strains that cause soft-tissue infections, several research groups previously have proposed that PVL is the key virulence factor. But new evidence strongly suggests that is not the case.

How is MRSA resistant to methicillin and penicillin?

Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) poses a significant and enduring problem to the treatment of infection by such strains. Resistance is usually conferred by the acquisition of a nonnative gene encoding a penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a), with significantly lower affinity for β-lactams.

How does PVL contribute to the virulence of S.aureus?

Exotoxins such as PVL constitute essential components of the virulence mechanisms of S. aureus. Nearly all strains secrete lethal factors that convert host tissues into nutrients required for bacterial growth. PVL is a member of the synergohymenotropic toxin family that induces pores in the membranes of cells.