What is outer circle of kachru?
The Outer Circle represents the places where they speak official non-native varieties of English because of their colonial history. The speakers of these places are the ones who challenge the norms and develop them. They are mainly ESL. Some of the countries that belong to this circle are India, Pakistan and Egypt.
What is the outer circle in English?
What is Outer Circle English? The outer circle is made up of post-colonial countries in which English, though not the mother tongue, has for a significant period of time played an important role in education, governance, and popular culture.
What are the 3 circles of English?
In this model the diffusion of English is captured in terms of three Concentric Circles of the language: The Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. The Inner Circle refers to English as it originally took shape and was spread across the world in the first diaspora.
What are the varieties of English according to kachru?
This paper examines the pioneering model of World Englishes formulated by Kachru in the early 1980s that allocates the presence of English into three concentric circles: first of all, the inner circle (Great Britain, the USA) where the language functions as an L1 (or native language); secondly, the outer circle (India.
Do countries from the inner circle use the same English?
The inner circle refers to the countries where English is used as the primary language, such as the USA, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. The outer/middle circle denotes those countries where English usage has some colonial history.
What are the three concentric circle?
The Three Concentric Circles Model represents the spread of the English language in terms of three concentric circles: the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle (Kachru, 1985).
What are the examples of World Englishes?
Varieties of World English include American English, Australian English, Babu English, Banglish, British English, Canadian English, Caribbean English, Chicano English, Chinese English, Denglish (Denglisch), Euro-English, Hinglish, Indian English, Irish English, Japanese English, New Zealand English, Nigerian English.
What is expanding circle?
The expanding circle is made up of countries in which English has no special administrative status but is recognized as a lingua franca and is widely studied as a foreign language. Countries in the expanding circle include China, Denmark, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Korea, and Sweden, among many others.
What is Norm dependent?
These countries are ‘norm-dependent’ – they fully depend on the norms originally produced by the native speakers of the inner circle. They generally do not develop or reproduce ‘Englishes’.
Why is there no wrong way of speaking English?
Without shared culture, a language becomes so obtuse that no one cares to speak it. Indeed, these changes in words and sounds has always been part of English: after all, Old English is completely unintelligible to speakers of the language today.
How is English used in the inner circle?
What are the limitations of Kachru’s three circle model?
Limitations with Kachru’s model Grey area between Inner and Outer Circles as well as Outer and Expanding Circles. The world’s bilingual or multilingual speakers are not taken into account. Difficulty of using the model to define speakers in terms of their proficiency in English.
What is the outer circle of World English?
The outer circle is one of the three concentric circles of World English described by linguist Braj Kachru in “Standards, Codification and Sociolinguistic Realism: The English Language in the Outer Circle” (1985).
What does Kachru mean by three concentric circles?
Kachru in the mid-1980s th at allocates the presence of English into three concentric circles: The Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. The Inner Circle presents the co untries where English is used as a native
Which is an example of the outer circle?
“The Outer Circle may be thought of as country contexts where English was first introduced as a colonial language for administrative purposes. . . . English is used in these countries for intra-country purposes.
How are people from the outer circle exposed to the world?
“As a large number speakers from the Outer-Circle and Expanding-Circle countries now live in the Inner-Circle countries, even native speakers of English are increasingly exposed to World Englishes. This means revising the notion of ‘proficiency’ even for the English of native speakers.