What is kaimal spectrum?

3 (a) Kaimal spectrum derived for mean wind velocity of 10 m/s, a turbulence intensity of 10 % and a turbulence length scale of 150 m (b) Turbulent-wind force signal for NREL5 offshore wind turbine, and (c) positioning of the wind force on the FE model.

What is wind spectrum?

NOTE 1 The wind spectrum is an expression of the dynamic properties of the wind (turbulence). It reflects the fluctuations about and in the same direction as a certain mean wind speed, usually the 1 h sustained wind speed.

What is turbulence intensity wind turbine?

Turbulence intensity is defined as the ratio of standard deviation of fluctuating wind velocity to the mean wind speed, and it represents the intensity of wind velocity fluctuation.

Is the Kaimal spectral model used in offshore wind turbines?

The Kaimal spectral model was developed in a flat and homogeneous onshore site and its applicability in offshore environment, e.g. the North Sea, where a number of wind turbines are in operation, is not thoroughly documented.

What are the spectral characteristics of surface layer turbulence?

Keywords: Surface-layer turbulence, FINO 1, Wind spectra, Full-scale measurements, Offshore wind 1. Introduction The dynamic wind load on wind turbines is commonly modelled in the time domain using the wind spectral models provided by IEC 61400-1 [1].

How is a sensitivity analysis of a wind turbine performed?

An elementary effects sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the most sensitive parameters. Separate case studies are performed on (1) wind-inflow conditions and (2) turbine structural and aerodynamic properties, both cases using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW baseline wind turbine.

Which is the most sensitive property of a turbine?

For the turbine properties, the most sensitive parameters are yaw misalignment and outboard lift coefficient distribution; secondary parameters of importance are inboard lift distribution, blade-twist distribution, and blade mass imbalance.