What is file inclusion attacks?

A Local File Inclusion attack is used to trick the application into exposing or running files on the server. They allow attackers to execute arbitrary commands or, if the server is misconfigured and running with high privileges, to gain access to sensitive data.

How many types of file inclusion vulnerability are there?

Local File Inclusion (LFI) and Remote File Inclusion (RFI) are two common vulnerabilities that typically affect PHP web applications.

Why is file inclusion possible?

File inclusions are part of every advanced server side scripting language on the web. They are needed to keep web applications’ code tidy and maintainable. They also allow web applications to read files from the file system, provide download functionality, parse configuration files and do other similar tasks.

What is LFI and RFI vulnerability?

Remote File Inclusion (RFI) and Local File Inclusion (LFI) are vulnerabilities that are often found in poorly-written web applications. These vulnerabilities occur when a web application allows the user to submit input into files or upload files to the server. RFI vulnerabilities are easier to exploit but less common.

What is the difference of low and remote inclusion?

Remote vs local files The difference between (RFI) and Local File Inclusion (LFI)is that with RFI, the hacker uses a remote file while LFI uses local files (i.e. files on the target server) when carrying out the attack. For LFI, it is possible for a hacker to only use a web browser to carry out the attack.

What is remote code execution?

One well-known vulnerability in web applications is one that is known as Remote Code Execution. In this type of vulnerability an attacker is able to run code of their choosing with system level privileges on a server that possesses the appropriate weakness.

What is file inclusion in C?

File Inclusion: This type of preprocessor directive tells the compiler to include a file in the source code program. There are two types of files which can be included by the user in the program: Header File or Standard files: These files contains definition of pre-defined functions like printf(), scanf() etc.

What is the vulnerability called when you can include a remote file for malicious purposes?

Remote file inclusion (RFI) is a serious web vulnerability. If an RFI vulnerability exists in a website or web application, an attacker can include malicious external files that are later run by this website or web application. Also read about a related vulnerability – local file inclusion (LFI).

What is the difference between file handling and file inclusion?

The difference between (RFI) and Local File Inclusion (LFI)is that with RFI, the hacker uses a remote file while LFI uses local files (i.e. files on the target server) when carrying out the attack. In an LFI attack, a hacker uses local files to execute a malicious script.

What is remote file inclusion and how does it work?

Remote file inclusion (RFI) is an attack targeting vulnerabilities in web applications that dynamically reference external scripts. The perpetrator’s goal is to exploit the referencing function in an application to upload malware (e.g., backdoor shells) from a remote URL located within a different domain.

How does local file inclusion ( LFI ) attack work?

An attacker can use Local File Inclusion (LFI) to trick the web application into exposing or running files on the web server. An LFI attack may lead to information disclosure, remote code execution, or even Cross-site Scripting (XSS). Typically, LFI occurs when an application uses the path to a file as input.

What can be done with a file inclusion vulnerability?

Successful exploitation of a file inclusion vulnerability will result in remote code execution on the web server that runs the affected web application. An attacker can use remote code execution to create a web shell on the web server, which can be used for website defacement .

How can local file inclusions lead to an XSS attack?

Though if not implemented properly, attackers can exploit them and craft a LFI attack which may lead to information disclosure, cross-site-Scripting (XSS) and remote code execution (RFI) vulnerabilities. How do Local File Inclusions Work?

How is local file inclusion similar to remote file inclusion?

Local file inclusion. Local file inclusion (LFI) is similar to a remote file inclusion vulnerability except instead of including remote files, only local files i.e. files on the current server can be included for execution.