What is bronchopulmonary aspergillosis?

Overview. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic or hypersensitive reaction to a fungus known as Aspergillus fumigatus. This is a fungi found in the soil. Although most of us are frequently exposed to Aspergillus, a reaction to it is rare in people with normal immune systems.

Why is central bronchiectasis used in allergy bronchopulmonary aspergillosis?

The hypersensitivity initially causes bronchospasm and bronchial wall edema, which is IgE-mediated. Ultimately, there is bronchial wall damage with loss of muscle and bronchial wall cartilage resulting in bronchiectasis (typically central bronchiectasis) 7.

How do you test for bronchopulmonary aspergillosis?

Skin testing, as well as sputum and blood tests, may be helpful in confirming allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. For the skin test, a small amount of aspergillus antigen is injected into the skin of your forearm. If your blood has antibodies to the mold, you’ll develop a hard, red bump at the injection site.

How do you treat bronchopulmonary aspergillosis?

Treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) aims to control episodes of acute inflammation and to limit progressive lung injury. The roles of systemic glucocorticoids and antifungal agents vary with the disease activity. Antifungal therapy may help to decrease exacerbations.

How is bronchopulmonary aspergillosis treated?

ABPA is usually treated with a combination of oral corticosteroids and anti-fungal medications. The corticosteroid (steroid medicine) is used to treat inflammation and blocks the allergic reaction. Examples of corticosteroids include: prednisone, prednisolone or methylprednisolone.

What is the main term in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis?

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (called ABPA for short) is a problem in the lungs that is not very common. It is caused by a severe allergic reaction after being exposed to a type of fungus called Aspergillus. ABPA can be a rare cause of poorly controlled asthma, occurring in less than 1% of asthma patients.

Why does ABPA have central bronchiectasis?

The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB) as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM), encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA.

How long is treatment for ABPA?

The treatment of ABPA-S is prednisone 0.5 mg/kg every day for 14 days, then on alternate days for three months, and then discontinued [23]. It may be continued if prednisone is required to control the asthma [23].

How many stages are there in ABPA?

ABPA is now classified into seven stages with stages 1 and 5 having substages. The stages do not represent sequential temporal regression and a patient may revert to a lower stage with treatment or time. Up to half of the patients may experience an exacerbation of the disease usually within 1–2 years.