What are the 5 subsets of CD4+ cells and what are their targets in the immune response to pathogens?
Five principal subsets or lineages of CD4+ T cells have been identified so far: T helper (Th)1, Th2, and Th17 cells that target specific classes of pathogens (3–5), regulatory T cells that are required to maintain self-tolerance (6) and follicular helper T cells (TFH) that provide help to B cells for antibody …
What are the three main subsets of CD4 cells?
Interestingly, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been found to mimic the functions of three major effector CD4 T helper subsets (Th1, Th2, and Th17) and thus can also be divided into three major subsets: ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s.
What are some subtypes of CD4+ cells?
The different CD4+ T helper cell subsets that have been identified include T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, Th9, Th17, and Th22 cells, along with follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs).
What are the subsets of T cells?
The pattern of cytokine expression defines the subsets of CD4+ T cells: Th1, Th2, Treg1, Th3, and Th17 cells.
What does CD4 stand for?
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T-cell receptor (TCR). CD4 is found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
What is the role of CD4 T cells?
A key role of CD4+ T cells is to ensure optimal responses by other lymphocytes. CD4+ T cells are necessary as helpers to promote B cell antibody production and are often required for the generation of cytotoxic and memory CD8+ T cell populations.
What is the main function of a CD4 T cell?
What are the 5 CD4 T helper cells?
CD4 T cells, as a key component of the immune system, are central in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. After decades of investigation, five major CD4 T helper cell (Th) subsets have been identified: Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg (T regulatory), and Tfh (follicular T helper) cells.
Are there CD4 + T-cells beyond the Th1 / Th2 paradigm?
In addition to the classical biphasic model of differentiation of T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells, unexpected increases in the numbers of CD4(+)T-cell subsets, i … CD4+ T-cell subsets in inflammatory diseases: beyond the Th1/Th2 paradigm
What kind of cells are T helper cells?
The T helper cells (Th cells), also known as CD4 cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system. They help the activity of other immune cells by releasing T cell cytokines.
What is the role of CD154 in T FH cells?
T helper cell. CD154 acts as a costimulatory molecule and is particularly important on a subset of T cells called T follicular helper cells (T FH cells). On T FH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication.