How many states have reported having KPC?

To date, KPC-producing bacteria have been isolated in at least 33 states.

What is the difference between CRE and CPE?

While CRE poses challenges with treatment in general, CPE is considered to be a more significant concern for both infection prevention and treatment since carbapenemase genes are mostly carried on plasmids that have the ability to transfer between bacterial species.

What is CRE in lab?

The term CRE refers to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Some CRE produce enzymes called carbapenemases that break apart carbapenems; these are referred to as carbapenemase-producing CRE (CP-CRE).

Is CRE the same as KPC?

The term CRE refers to carbapenem-resistant and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Currently, the most common type of carbapenemase in the United States is the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC).

How is CPE treated?

If you have a CPE infection, you can be treated with a specific type of antibiotics. Common antibiotics usually will not work.

Can you get rid of CPE?

Once CPE settles into the gut it usually stays for a long time. If you have good health and do not need to take any antibiotics for a long time that gives you the best chance of getting rid of CPE or at least having it shrink to very small numbers. Antibiotics will not remove CPE from your gut.

What kind of phenotypic test can you do for carbapenemase?

Clinical laboratories can perform phenotypic tests for carbapenemase production (e.g., CarbaNP, mCIM, and mCIM with eCIM) or molecular assays for the presence of a carbapenemase gene (CLSI, M100, S29).

Why is carbapenemase mechanism testing important for CRE prevention?

Carbapenemase mechanism testing is important for CRE prevention because it identifies CP-CRE for which a public health response is recommended and enables healthcare facilities and public health departments to better target different interventions to different types of CRE.

How is carbapenem resistance transmitted from one bacterium to another?

The presence of a carbapenemase is usually sufficient to cause carbapenem resistance. Many carbapenemase genes are on mobile genetic elements that can be transmitted from one bacterium to another, thereby spreading resistance. One carbapenemase, the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), was first identified in the United States in 2001.

What are the enzymes that inactivate carbapenems?

Carbapenemase-producing CRE make enzymes called carbapenemases that inactivate carbapenems and other β-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins and cephalosporins. The presence of a carbapenemase is usually sufficient to cause carbapenem resistance.