How are GSSP determined?

Rules for GSSP A GSSP has to decide the lower boundary (start of a geological period) of a geologic stage. The lower boundary (start of a geological period) has to be decided using a primary (main) marker (usually first appearance datum of a fossil specie).

What do you mean by GSSP?

Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point
A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is an internationally agreed upon reference point on a stratigraphic section which defines the lower boundary of a stage on the geologic time scale.

How many GSSPs are there?

The GSSP-Defined Phanerozoic Chronostratigraphic Scale. As of September 2018, the ICS recognized 102 Phanerozoic stages and on its chart showed 71 ratified GSSPs (Figure 1).

What is a chronostratigraphic chart?

The International Chronostratigraphic Chart describes the geological time in which the history of the Earth is inscribed. It combines a numerical scale that uses as a unit a million years (chronometric scale) and a scale in relative time units (chronostratigraphic scale).

What is the Golden Spike Anthropocene?

golden spikes – a real point in time when you can show in a record when the whole Earth has changed. “If you look back through the entire, wonderful geological timescale, we have defined almost every boundary in that way.” The study suggests that one such golden spike places the start of the Anthropocene in 1610.

What is the basic unit of lithostratigraphy?

The basic unit of lithostratigraphy is the formation, which is the smallest mappable rock unit possessing a suite of lithologic characteristics that allow it to be distinguished from other such units. Formations need not be lithologically homogeneous, but the entire interval of strata should be diagnosable.

What is biostratigraphy for?

Biostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that uses fossils to establish relative ages of rock and correlate successions of sedimentary rocks within and between depositional basins. A biozone is an interval of geologic strata characterised by certain fossil taxa.

What is the smallest chronostratigraphic unit?

A stage is normally the lowest ranking unit in the chronostratigraphic hierarchy that can be recognized on a global scale. It is a subdivision of a series.

How is the GSSP method used in chronostratratigraphy?

I thereby demonstrate that the GSSP method has produced a chronostratigraphic scale (Figure 1) fraught with problems of philosophy and methodology.

What are the criteria for a GSSP section?

Important criteria for a good GSSP section are: stratigraphical completeness across the GSSP level; adequate thickness of strata both above and below the boundary; and accessibility for subsequent investigations, ideally with provision for conservation and protection of the site.

Where is locality B in a stratigraphic boundary?

Locality B includes a stratal section that includes gaps, with another GSSP near the top. The gray shaded area shows the degree of uncertainty of the GSSP levels (which are by definition precisely placed within their respective type areas).

When did the International Commission on Stratigraphy standardize the scale?

The chronostratigraphic scale has been under construction for more than 200 years. Since 1961, the International Commission on Stratigraphy has taken control of developing and standardizing the chronostratigraphic scale through the definition of chronostratigraphic boundaries by Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs).